• ATP is a phosphorylated molecule made up of 3 parts:
    • Adenine: A nitrogen containing Organic base
    • Ribose: A sugar molecule with a 5-carbon ring structure (pentose sugar) acting as a backbone
    • Phosphate A chain of three phosphate groups
  • ATP is a nucleotide, it has strong bonds between the phosphates, therefore providing large amounts of energy when these bonds are broke.

Formation of a ATP synthase (or phosphorylation)

  • ATP + H2O -> ADP + P (+ energy)
  • Adenosine Water Adenosine Phosphorus
  • Triphosphate diphosphate
  • Water is required to breakdown the ATP molecules requiring the Enzyme ATPase (or ATP Hydrolase), thus being a hydrolysis reaction.
  • In phosphorylation, the adding of phosphate to ADP to create ATP
  • There are 3 forms:
    Oxidative phosphorylation
    Occurs in the membrane of mitochondria during aerobic respiration and provides the process of the electron transport chain
  • Phosphorylation
    Occurs in the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast of plants only
  • Substrate-level phosphorylation
    Occurs when phosphate groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP to make ATP (e.g. in glycolysis)

ATP vs Glucose

  • ATP is more immediate than glucose as hydrolysis reactions are quick
    ATP to ADP is a single reaction, thus quicker however less energy is produced. ATP is more suitable for tasks that require a quick response in energy, however not in massive yields.
    Glucose is a complex reaction, therefore slower, however produces far more energy

Which reactions require ATP?

  • Metabolic process
  • Movement (muscle contractions)
  • Active transport
  • Secretion
  • Activation of molecules
  • Bioluminescence