- ATP is a phosphorylated molecule made up of 3 parts:
- Adenine: A nitrogen containing Organic base
- Ribose: A sugar molecule with a 5-carbon ring structure (pentose sugar) acting as a backbone
- Phosphate A chain of three phosphate groups
- ATP is a nucleotide, it has strong bonds between the phosphates, therefore providing large amounts of energy when these bonds are broke.
Formation of a ATP synthase (or phosphorylation)
- ATP + H2O -> ADP + P (+ energy)
- Adenosine Water Adenosine Phosphorus
- Triphosphate diphosphate
- Water is required to breakdown the ATP molecules requiring the Enzyme ATPase (or ATP Hydrolase), thus being a hydrolysis reaction.
- In phosphorylation, the adding of phosphate to ADP to create ATP
- There are 3 forms:
Occurs in the membrane of mitochondria during aerobic respiration and provides the process of the electron transport chain
Occurs in the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast of plants only
- Substrate-level phosphorylation
Occurs when phosphate groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP to make ATP (e.g. in glycolysis)
ATP vs Glucose
- ATP is more immediate than glucose as hydrolysis reactions are quick
ATP to ADP is a single reaction, thus quicker however less energy is produced. ATP is more suitable for tasks that require a quick response in energy, however not in massive yields.
Glucose is a complex reaction, therefore slower, however produces far more energy
Which reactions require ATP?
- Metabolic process
- Movement (muscle contractions)
- Active transport
- Activation of molecules