• Monosaccharides are the monomers which make up carbohydrates
  • Most Simple sugar
  • They have the same number of carbon + oxygen

e.g. Glucose is C6H12O6

  • They have the general formula of (CH2O)n
  • White Crystalline solids
  • Soluble
  • The 3 monosaccharides are Glucose, Fructose and Galactose
  • Glyosidic bonds between each monomer formed under a condensation reaction

Monosaccharide to Disaccharide



Glucose + Glucose


Glucose + Fructose


Glucose + Galactose



  • An Alpha-helix structure
  • Insoluble and is compact
  • No impact of water potential (osmotically inactive)
  • It is the main plant storage of sugar
  • Made of


  • Polymer of β-glucose
  • Each monomer is inverted to the previous monomer
  • Different chains are held with hydrogen bonds
  • These chains run parallel with hydrogen bonds between the chains to form microfibrils.
  • Cellulose is what makes up the structure of a plant cell


  • Similar to amylopectin
  • α-glucose polymer with 1,4 bonds with some 1,6 branches
  • Highly branched structure
  • Can be broken down quickly to glucose when needed
  • Reflects the high metabolic rate demand for energy in animals

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