• Ionic bonding is the bonding of ions that are held together through electrostatic attraction
  • Ionic bonding occurs between metals and non-metals
  • Electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom
  • Ions are formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
  • The simplest ions are single atoms which have either lost of gained electrons which therefore have a full outer shell.
  • Electrostatic attraction holds positive and negative ions together. The result is a very strong bond.

Forming ionic compounds

  • The ionic compounds are made up positively charged part and a negatively charged part
  • The overall charge of any compound is zero
  • All negative charges in the compound must balance the positive charge

e.g. Na + Cl– -> NaCl (0 overall charge)

Properties of Ionically Bonded Compounds

  • Always solids at room temperature
  • Giant structure
  • High melting point (in order to melt an ionic compound energy must be supplied to break up the lattice ions)
  • Conducts electricity well in dissolved in a solution or melted (as the ions that carry an electrical current are free to move in the liquid state but are not free in a solid state)
  • Brittle and shatter easily (the large lattice of alternating positive and negative ions, a physical collision of the material may cause these layers to move and have 2 positive ions touching which therefore repel)