Kinetics

Equilibrium Constant: Kp

Mole Fraction The mole fraction is a unit of concentration, defined to be equal to the number of moles of ...
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Properties of Hydrocarbons

Polarity • Alkanes are not polar, as there is no electronegativity between C-H bonds • Alcohols and water are polar ...
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Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

Fractional distillation allows us to separate different lengths hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes, from a mixture, as they are found in crude ...
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Organic Chemical Tests

Test Method Positive Test Results Extra Primary, Secondary, and tertiary Alcohols 1) Add potassium dichromate solution · Primary and secondary ...
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Acid, Bases and Buffers

Bronsted-Lowry acids are proton donors Bronsted-Lowry bases are proton acceptors Strong and Weak Acids Strong acids dissociate (or ionise) almost ...
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Acid-Base Titrations

pH changes during acid-base titrations An acid of known concentration is added from a burette to a measured volume of ...
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pH Scale

The acidity of a solution varies on the concentration of H+ (aq) and is measured along the pH scale pH ...
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Indicators for Titrations

The equivalence point is where there is an equal proportion of hydrogen ion added to hydroxide ions The End point ...
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Defining an Acids

An acid is a substance that can donate a proton (H+ ion) and a base is a substance that can ...
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Calculating pH of a weak acid using K

Weak acids do not ionise fully in a solution and therefore the [H+] is not proportional to the acid concentration ...
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