• Metallic bonding is the bonding of metal atom to another metal atom
  • Unless a non-metal atom is present, a metal atom cannot donate electrons
  • The outer electrons of all metals are delocalised
  • Metals are a lattice of positively charged ions that are in a ‘sea’ of electrons

    Properties of Metallic Bonding

  • Good conductors of electricity (the delocalised electrons can move throughout the structure, therefore the electrons from the negative side of a terminal can join the electron sea at the one end (e.g. in a wire) whilst simultaneously a different electron can leave the wire at the positive terminal
  • Good conductor of heat
  • Metals have great strength as a result of the charge on the ions, a greater charge means the number of delocalised electrons is greater too. The stronger electrostatic attraction between the positive ions and the electrons. As well as the size of the ions, the smaller the ion, the closer the electrons are to the positive nuclei and thus the bond is stronger
  • Metals are malleable and ductile, as after a small distortion, each metal ion is exactly in the same environment as before, and therefore the shape is retained
  • Metals have a high melting point as a result of their large structure. There is a strong attraction between the metal ions and the delocalised sea of electrons.