• A molecule with a permanent dipole will have a weak electrostatic force of attraction between the δand>δ charges on the neighboring molecules, otherwise known as a permanent dipole-dipole force
  • Permanent dipole-dipole is the 2nd strongest intermolecular force, with Hydrogen bonds being the strongest, and Van der Waals being the weakest. It only acts between certain types of molecules
  • Molecules with a permanent dipole will experience dipole-dipole forces
  • It is found between molecules with a differing electronegativity, such as HCl. In HCl, the chlorine is more electronegative and thus will have a negative charge cloud around it (compared to the hydrogen atom) The result of this is that the strong negative chlorine will be attracted to the positive nucleus of the neighbouring Hydrogen in the HCl molecule.Dipole moments
    • Molecules that have polar bonds may also have a dipole moment
    • In molecules where there are more than one polar bond, the result of this is that the bonds may cancel each other out and thus there is no dipole moment. The effect also may add up and therefore each individual bond reinforces each other
    • It is greatly determined on the shape of the molecule