ATP is a phosphorylated molecule made up of 3 parts:

  • Adenine: A nitrogen containing Organic base
  • Ribose: A sugar molecule with a 5-carbon ring structure (pentose sugar) acting as a backbone
  • Phosphate A chain of three phosphate group

ATP is a nucleotide, it has strong bonds between the phosphates, therefore providing large amounts of energy when these bonds are broke. (albeit small in comparison to glucose)

Formation of a ATP synthase (or phosphorylation) 

ATP                 +             H2O                        ->                      ADP                 +             P          (+ energy)

Adenosine                         Water                                           Adenosine                    Phosphorus

Triphosphate                                                                           diphosphate

Water is required to breakdown the ATP molecules requiring the Enzyme ATPase (or ATP Hydrolase), thus being a hydrolysis reaction.

In phosphorylation, the adding of phosphate to ADP to create ATP

  • There are 3 forms:
  • Oxidative phosphorylation

Occurs in the membrane of mitochondria during aerobic respiration and provides the process of the electron transport chain

  • Phosphorylation

Occurs in the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast of plants only

  • Substrate-level phosphorylation

Occurs when phosphate groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP to make ATP (e.g. in glycolysis)

ATP vs Glucose

  • ATP is more immediate than glucose as hydrolysis reactions are quick
  • ATP to ADP is a single reaction, thus quicker however less energy is produced. ATP is more suitable for tasks that require a quick response in energy, however not in massive yields.
  • Glucose is a complex reaction, therefore slower, however produces far more energy

Which reactions require ATP?

  • Metabolic process
  • Movement (muscle contractions)
  • Active transport
  • Secretion
  • Activation of molecules
  • Bioluminescence

ATP is a phosphorylated molecule made up of 3 parts:

  • Adenine: A nitrogen containing Organic base
  • Ribose: A sugar molecule with a 5-carbon ring structure (pentose sugar) acting as a backbone
  • Phosphate A chain of three phosphate groups

 

ATP is a nucleotide, it has strong bonds between the phosphates, therefore providing large amounts of energy when these bonds are broke.

 

ATP properties:

  • ATP stores a small unit of energy which is both suitable for the reactions which requires it as well as minimal energy is wasted as heat
  • ATP is a small soluble molecule and therefore can easily be transported around the cell
  • The ATP molecule is easily hydrolysed and so energy release is fast
  • ATP is a simple molecule to reform
  • ATP allows for other molecules to become more reactive as it can transfer one of its phosphate groups to them in phosphorylation
  • ATP does not leave the cell it is produced in